23rd March, 2018

Frequently asked questions about National Rurban Mission (NRuM)

National Rurban Mission Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What is the other name for the National Rurban Mission (NRuM)?

Ans. NRuM is also known as Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission (SPMRM).

Q2. What is the vision statement of NRuM/ SPMRM?

Ans. The vision statement of NRuM/ SPMRM is "Development of a cluster of villages that preserve and nurture the essence of rural community life with focus on equity and inclusiveness without compromising with the facilities perceived to be essentially urban in nature, thus creating a cluster of ‘Rurban’ villages".

Q3. What is a Rurban Cluster?

Ans. Rurban cluster refers to a group of villages located in close proximity to each other such that they share borders. These villages have a population of approximately 25000 - 50000 in plain and coastal areas and a population of 5000-15000 in desert, hilly or tribal areas. For all practical purposes a clusters of villages is administrated by the Gram Panchayats. The villages in a cluster are located within a single block/tehsil in order to ensure ease of administration.

Q4. How will the Rurban Clusters be developed?

Ans. Rurban clusters will be developed by providing training that is linked to economic activities, developing skills & local entrepreneurship. Necessary infrastructure amenities will also be provided.

Q5. What are the categories of clusters in NRuM?

Ans. There are two types of clusters in NRuM namely:

  • Non-Tribal Cluster
  • Tribal Cluster.

Q6. How will the Non-Tribal clusters be selected?


  • The Ministry will provide a list of leading sub-districts to each State, within which the clusters can be identified.
  • The selection of these sub districts by the Ministry would be based on the following parameters:
  • Decadal growth in rural population
  • Decadal growth in non-farm work participation
  • Presence of economic clusters
  • Presence of places of tourism and religious significance
  • Proximity to transport corridors.
  • Following this, within these sub-districts identified by the Ministry, the State Governments will select the clusters.
  • The following performance parameters will be used to make the selection:
  • Decadal growth in rural population.
  • Rise in land values.
  • Decadal growth in non-farm workforce participation.
  • Percentage enrolment of girls in secondary schools.
  • Percentage households with bank accounts under Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY).
  • Performance in Swacch Bharat Mission (Grameen)
  • Good governance initiatives by gram panchayats
  • Any other factor which the States consider relevant may also be included. However, a total weightage of 80% will be given for the first 4 parameters. The States will have the flexibility to choose the last three parameters, subject to a total of 20%.
  • While selecting the Rurban cluster the State may identify a large village/gram panchayat that is equipped with resources and can thus act as a growth center. These growth centers could be block headquarter villages/census towns (under the administration of gram panchayats).
  • The clusters can then be formed by identifying geographically close villages/gram panchayats within a radius of about 5–10 km around the identified growth center.

Q7. How will the Non-Tribal clusters be selected?


  • In order to identify the tribal clusters, the Ministry will select the leading sub-districts falling within the top 100 tribal districts of the country, based on the Scheduled Tribes population.
  • The selection of these sub districts will be based on the following parameters:
  • Decadal growth in tribal population
  • Current tribal literacy rate
  • Decadal growth in non-farm workforce participation
  • Decadal growth in rural population and
  • Presence of economic clusters
  • Following this, within these sub-districts identified by the Ministry, the State Governments will select the clusters using the following performance parameters:
  • Decadal growth in Tribal Population
  • Growth in Tribal Literacy rates
  • Decadal growth in Non-Farm Work force participation.
  • Any other factor which the States consider relevant may be included in addition to the above three parameters. However the weightage given to the above three parameters during selection should not be reduced below 80%.

Q8. What is Critical Gap Funding (CGF)?


  • NRuM will be funded through a combination of various Centrally Sponsored, Central Sector and State Government Schemes pertaining to the chosen components under the Mission.
  • In addition to these scheme funds, Critical Gap Funding (CGF) will be provided to the clusters to bridge the gap posed by availability of scheme funds and fulfilling the development aspirations of the 'Rurban Cluster'.
  • The CGF would be capped at 30% of the capital cost or Rs 30 crores whichever is lesser.
  • The operations and maintenance expenses of the project will be recovered through user charges as per the user charges policy in the state. The shortages will be supported by the state budget.

Q9. What is Detailed Project Report (DPR)?

Ans. Detailed Project Report (DPR) contains the detailed design and costing of the project components. The state government norms must be followed while preparing the DPR. DPRs are included by the States as Mission Outcomes for the clusters.

Q10. How are the Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs)/Gram Panchayat/ Gram Sabhas involved in the project?

Ans. The State Nodal Agency will consult the PRIs at the Zilla, Panchayat Samiti and the Gram Panchayat on the NRuM activities to be undertaken in the Clusters. The Mission should be adopted by the Gram Sabhas of all the participating Gram Panchayats through Gram Sabha and Panchayat Samiti resolutions. PRI members are to be included at all stages of the project cycle from planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation and maintenance of assets created during the project period.